The Kazakh land, rich in diverse metal ores, became one of the world’s first centers of metallurgy. The centers of mining production and smelting of bronze, copper, lead, iron, silver and gold, and the manufacture of sheet iron originated in the ancient antiquity on the lands of Central, Northern and Eastern Kazakhstan.
Early tribes well-developed metallurgy by the second millennium BC. The transition to a manufacturing economy drastically changed life in Kazakhstan.
Bronze becomes the critical raw material for producing tools and weapons. Kazakhstan’s subsoil, rich in base metals and predominantly stannic copper ore, was a key reason for the development of metallurgy.
During the Bronze Age the vast steppe regions of Siberia, Cisurals, Kazakhstan and Central Asia were inhabited by tribes who have left evidence of their rich culture known as Andronovskaya, after the first discovery near Andronovo village in the Western Siberia. Distinctive artefacts of the Andronovskoye population include obsequies, stoneware with geometrical patterns, and metal products.
The production cooperative style of community changed over time into individual families, with family property rather than community property; housing changed, too, with the appearance of separate dwellings for each family by the late Bronze Age. These years also saw the appearance of defensive hedges and ditches surrounding settlements, as tribal conflict increases.